Thursday, April 4, 2019

Laghu Udhyog Ki Paribhasha | Small Industries

Jahan tak laghu udhoyogon ka prashna hai, laghu udhyogon ki paribhasha vibhinn drashtikonon se ki gayi hai. Rajkoshiy aayog 1949-50 ne laghu udhyogon ki is prakar paribhashit kiya hai-ek laghu udhyog vah hai jo mukhytah kiraye ke shramikon dwar ajinki sankhya das se pachas hoti hai, chalaya jaata hai. Laghu udhyog mandal ke anusar ve sabhi udhyog laghu udhyog mein shamil kiye jaate hain jinme yadi shakti ka prayog hota hai tab pachas shramik or jab shakti ka prayog nahi kiya jaata hai tab so shramik majdoori apr rakhe jaate hain tatha jinme teen laakh rupay se kam ki poonji lagi hoti hai.

Uparyukt paribhasha mein shramikon ki sankhya tathan poonji ki matra ko paribhasha ka aadhar banaya gya tha parantu bahrat sarkar ne kendriy laghu stariy udhyog board ke sujhavon ko svikar kake laghu udhyogon ki ek naveen paribhasha di hai jisme shram evam yantrikaran ko aadhar na maankar machine evam sanyantorn mein kiye gaye viniyogon ko aadhar maana hai. Is paribhasha mein niyojit shramikon ki sankhya par pratibandh nahi lagaya gya hai. 1947 mein yah seema ek karod nirdharit ki gayi thi jise badhakar ab paanch karod rupay kar diya gya hai.

Bhartiy arthvyavastha mein laghu tatha kuteer udhyogon ka mahatv
Yojgar ke strot: bharat mein in udhyog dhandhon se lagbhag 2.82 karod logon ko rojgar prapt htoa hai. Akele hathkargha udhyog se hi pachas laakh vyakityon ko rojgar prapt hota hai.

Aay va sampatti ke sam vitran mein sahayak: kuteer tatha laghu udhyog poonji pradhan nahi hote jisse poonji ke sankendra, arthik satta ke kendrikaran tatha arthik shoshan ki pravartiyan ubhar nahi paati. Iske viprit, desh mein svatah hi aay or sampatti ke saman vitran ko protsahan milta hai.

Alp poonji udhyog: kuteer tatha laghu udhyog bhartiy arthvyavastha mein sliye bhi mahatvpoorn hai ki ye udhyog shram pradhan udhyog hai, poonji pradhan nahi. Kam poonji se hi in udhyogon ki sthapana ho jaati hai.

Krishi mein sahayak: bharat mein krishi ki alp utpadakta ka ek mool karan krishi bhoomi par jansankhya ka atyadhik dabav hai jiske karan kheton mein utpadan anarthik hota chala jaa raha hai. Atha krishi vikas ke liye yah aavashyaka hia ki vahan se atirikt maanv shram ko hataya jaaye. Yah kary laghu evam kuteer udhyogon ke dwara hi sambahv hai. Atah desh mein udhyogon ka vikas hona aavashyak hai.

Vikendrikaran ki pravarti: bade uhyogon mein kendrikaran ki pravarti paayi jaati hai jabki iske viprit laghu tatha kuteer udhyog vikendrit arthvyvastha ki sthapan karte hain. Aaj ke yug mein vikendrit arthvyavastha ka vishesh mahatv hai.

Kam samajik laagat par arthik vikas: samajil laagat se hamara aashy us vyay se hai jo utpadan prapt karne ke liye shehs samaj ko karna padta hai. Nagaron mein sarvjanik svasthy, jal, aavas tatha any suvidhaon par kiya jaane wala vyay is mad ke antargat aata hai. Laghu tatha kuteer udhyog mukhytah gaanvon tatha chhote nagaron mein sthapit kiye jaate hain. Atah inki samajik lagat kam aati hai.


Any laabh: ye udhyog rashtriy atmsamman ke sarvatha anukool hai kyonki inme pray videshi poonji, shram athva koshal aadi ki aavashyakta nahi padti. In udhyogon ko upbhoktaon ki roochi ke anusar samayojit kiay jaa sakta hai. Ye udhyog audhyogik Ashanti, hadtal, talabandi aadi se mukt rahte hai or sahanubhooti, samanta, sahkarita, ekta tatha sahyog ki bhavna ko janm dete hai. Ye udhyog videshi vinimay arjit karne mein atyant sahayak sidhh hue hain. In udhyogon ko chalan ek liey vishesh shiksha evam prashikshan ki aavashyakta nahi hoti. Kuteer tatha laghu udhyoogn ka maal adhik tikau tatha kalatmak hota hai. Ye udhyog bade paimane ke poorak udhyogon ke roop mein vishehs upyogi sidhh hue hain. Ye udhyog krishkon ke liye vardan hai kyonki ye unhe mosami rojgar pradan karte hain. In udhyoogn mein bade udhyogon ki apeksha kahi adhik sthirta evam suraksha paayi jaati hai. Maanviy mulyon ki drashti se bhi in udhyogon ka vishesh mahatv hai. Ye udhyog samajik nyay tatha arthik santosh ke saath saath samaj mein anushasan banaye rakhte hai.m  

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