Thursday, April 4, 2019

Vartman Audhyogik Dhancha: Current Industrial Infrastructure

Audhyogik dhanche mein bhi sanutlan sthapit kiya jaana chahiye. Laabh ke uddesh ko dhayn mein rakhne ke saath saath samajik uddehsoyn ki upekshan hai ki jaa sakti. Iske liye sarvpratham upbhokta vastu udhyogon ko prathmikta di jaani chahiye. Saath hi adharik sanrachna ka vikas bhi kiya jaana chahiye. Sankshep mein bharat mein teevr audhyogikaran ke saath saath nimnlikhit tahtyon par bhi dhyan diya jaana chahiye. Audhyogik vikas ke falswaroop rojgaron mein vradhi honi chahiye. 

Chaynit udhyogn ka desh ke vibhinn pradeshon/ shetron mein nyaypoorn dhang se vitran hona chhaiye. Doosre shabadon mein alpviksit pradeshon ke vikas par bhi bal diya jaana chahiye. Vilasita ki vastuon ka utpadan karne wale udhyogon kit ulna mein samajik prathmikta prapt upbhog vastuon/ majdoori vastuon ka utpadan karne wale udhyogon ko prathmikta di jaani chahiye. Aadharik sanrachna ko sudradh kiya jaana chahiye.

Sarvjanik shetr: aise upkram jin par sarkari vibhagon athva kendr ya rajy sarkaron dwara sthapit snasthaon ka svamitv hota hai, sarvjanik shetr ke upkram kahlate hain. Inkla uddeshy laabh kamana na hokar arthvyavastaon ko sudradh banana evam samajik lalyan mein vrahid karna hota hai.

Niji shetr: aise sabhi upkram, jin par niji svamitv, prabandh or niyantr ahona thai, niji shetr ke upkram kahlate hain. Inka uddeshy adhiktam laabh kamana hota hai. Aise sabhi upkram jin par sarvjanik shetr ki sanstha or niji udyam ka sanyukt svamitv hota hai sanyukt shetr ke upkram kahlate hain. Inme donon ke hi ansh hote hai. Bhartiy udhyogon ke dhanche ko samajhne ke liye niji udyamon ko nimnlikhit sherniyon mein vibhajit kiya jaata hai.

Gair karkhana vinirman ikaiyan: ye do prakar ki hoti hai-grameen or shahri shetron mein kuteer udhyog evam any atyadhik chhoti vinirman ikaiyan.

Frea companies: aise upkram jo bahut adhik matra mein videshi vinimay ka prayog karte hai or videshi vinimay adhiniyam ke niyamon ek antargat kar karte hain frea companies kahlate hain. Vartman mein freak e sthan par fema ke niyamon ke antargat kary kiya jaata hai.

MRTP companies: aise sabhi bade upkram jo ekadhikar evam pratibandhatmak vyapar vyavhar adhiniyam ke antargat kaam karte hain mrtp companies kahlate hai.

Any niji upkram: iske antargat uparyutk ke atirikt sahi any upkram aate hain. Bharat mein sthapit audhyogik vyvastha ko do bhagon mein baanta jaata hai. Kuteer evam laghu udhyog tatha bade paimane ke udhyog.

Kuteer tatha laghu udhyog
Laghu tatha kuteer udhyog vikendrity arthik pragati ke ghotak mane jaate hain. Morris freedman ke ansuar jahan vishal udhyogon ka uddeshy laabh kamana or unka adhar poonji hai vahin kuteer evam laghu udhyogon ka uddeshy jeevan ki samridhi or unka aadhar dhan na hokar svyan manushy hai. Vishal udhyog poonji ki seva karte hain or laghu udhyog manavata ki.

Kuteer udhyog ki paribhasha

Rajkoshiy aaoyg 1949-50 se kuteer udhyog ko is prakar paribhashit kiya hai-ek kuteer udhoyg vah ai jo ki poorntah athva anshstah shramik ke parivar ki sahayata se poornkaleen athva alpkaleen vyavay ke roop mein chalaya jaata hai. 

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